Review of Euthanasia as a Therapy in Terminal Condition from Health and Law Perspective

Main Article Content

Anak Agung Made Widiasa
Nyoman Suyatna
I Gusti Agung Gede Utara Hartawan
Corresponding Author:
Anak Agung Made Widiasa |


Introduction: Terminal conditions and their treatment processes initiate actions that can be taken to relieve patients of the pain they suffer. This action is carried out by accelerating the death of patients with terminal conditions, known as euthanasia. Euthanasia is still being debated regarding the legal aspects and purpose of the act as part of the patient's treatment. This study aims to determine the perspective of euthanasia as part of the treatment or therapy of terminal conditions.

Methods: This research is a literature study from several databases, including Proquest, Science Direct, SpringerLink, and Google Scholar. The article search used keywords combined with booleans. 755 articles were found according to the keywords, and 12 articles were selected using Prism analysis.

Results: Euthanasia is seen as a way for terminal patients who have been resistant to treatment to be free from the misery of their illness. Euthanasia in health can be carried out if it is the patient's conscious choice without coercion and has met the medical requirements. Euthanasia can be carried out in areas, regions, or countries where there are regulations, laws, or similar regulations governing the implementation of euthanasia.

Conclution: With the existence of clear rules for the implementation of euthanasia, health workers or families involved in euthanasia can provide a clear understanding of how to implement euthanasia.

Article Details

How to Cite
A. A. M. Widiasa, Nyoman Suyatna, and I. G. A. G. U. Hartawan, “Review of Euthanasia as a Therapy in Terminal Condition from Health and Law Perspective”, Babali Nurs. Res., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 216-229, Jan. 2024.


[1] F. R. Cordeiro, S. Griebeler Oliveira, J. Zeppini Giudice, V. Pellegrini Fernandes, and A. Timm Oliveira, “Definitions for ‘palliative care’, ‘end-of-life’ and ‘terminally ill’ in oncology: a scoping review,” Enfermería Cuid. Humaniz., vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 205–228, Oct. 2020, doi: 10.22235/ech.v9i2.2317.
[2] B. M. Guerrero, “Terminal Illness,” in Encyclopedia of Child Behavior and Development, Boston, MA: Springer US, 2011, pp. 1475–1478. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-79061-9_2889.
[3] I. Oancea, “EUTANASIA – ASUMAREA ABSURDĂ A LIBERTĂğII,” Rev. Rom. Bioet., vol. 5, no. 4, 2007, [Online]. Available:
[4] S. Duxbury, “Assisted dying in the terminally ill: an evaluation of views on euthanasia,” J. Radiother. Pract., vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 343–352, Dec. 2019, doi: 10.1017/S1460396919000402.
[5] B. Varkey, “Defining Euthanasia and the Need to be Circumspect in the Usage of the Term,” Med. Princ. Pract., vol. 29, no. 5, pp. 499–500, 2020, doi: 10.1159/000508791.
[6] D. K. Nehra, P. Kumar, and S. Nehra, “Euthanasia : An Understanding,” Suicide Attitude Prev., no. January 2013, 2014.
[7] E. C. Goligher et al., “Physician-Assisted Suicide and Euthanasia in the ICU,” Crit. Care Med., vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 149–155, Feb. 2017, doi: 10.1097/CCM.0000000000001818.
[8] T. Nayernouri, “Euthanasia, terminal illness and quality of life,” Arch. Iran. Med., vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 54–55, 2011, doi: 011141/AIM.0011.
[9] I. Stokłosa et al., “Analysis of Factors Influencing Polish Students’ Opinions on Euthanasia,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 19, no. 9, p. 5019, Apr. 2022, doi: 10.3390/ijerph19095019.
[10] D. Mendelson and T. S. Jost, “A Comparative Study of the Law of Palliative Care and End-of-Life Treatment,” J. Law, Med. Ethics, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 130–143, Jan. 2003, doi: 10.1111/j.1748-720X.2003.tb00063.x.
[11] P. Lewis, “The Empirical Slippery Slope from Voluntary to Non-Voluntary Euthanasia,” J. Law, Med. Ethics, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 197–210, Jan. 2007, doi: 10.1111/j.1748-720X.2007.00124.x.
[12] H. Wijaya, N. P. Jaya, B. J. Supeno, and A. Natalis, “Legal Liability for Euthanasia Actions in the Perspective of the Medical Code of Ethics in Indonesia,” Med. Leg. Updat., vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 619–624, 2021, doi: 10.37506/mlu.v21i2.2751.
[13] G. Montanari Vergallo and M. Gulino, “End-of-life care and assisted suicide: An update on the Italian situation from the perspective of the European Court of Human Rights,” Ethics, Med. Public Heal., vol. 21, p. 100752, 2022, doi: 10.1016/j.jemep.2022.100752.
[14] J. Amzat, K. K. Kanmodi, A. Ismail, and E. A. Egbedina, “Euthanasia in Africa: A scoping review of empirical evidence,” Heal. Sci. Reports, vol. 6, no. 5, May 2023, doi: 10.1002/hsr2.1239.
[15] L. Grassi et al., “Debating Euthanasia and Physician-Assisted Death in People with Psychiatric Disorders,” Curr. Psychiatry Rep., vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 325–335, 2022, doi: 10.1007/s11920-022-01339-y.
[16] E. Avci, “Does palliative sedation produce an ethical resolution to avoid the demand for euthanasia in a Muslim Country?,” Indian J. Palliat. Care, vol. 24, no. 4, pp. 537–544, 2018, doi: 10.4103/IJPC.IJPC_105_18.
[17] L. A. Jansen, S. Wall, and F. G. Miller, “Drawing the line on physician-assisted death,” J. Med. Ethics, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 190–197, 2019, doi: 10.1136/medethics-2018-105003.
[18] N. Baykara, T. Utku, V. Alparslan, M. K. Arslantaş, and N. Ersoy, “Factors affecting the attitudes and opinions of ICU physicians regarding end-of-life decisions for their patients and themselves: A survey study from Turkey,” PLoS One, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1–20, 2020, doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0232743.
[19] A. Asai, T. Okita, Y. Shimakura, M. Tanaka, and M. Fukuyama, “Japan should initiate the discussion on voluntary assisted dying legislation now,” BMC Med. Ethics, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 1–11, 2023, doi: 10.1186/s12910-023-00886-0.
[20] O. Schmahl, R. Oude Voshaar, A. van de Poel-Mustafayeva, and R. Marijnissen, “Request for euthanasia by a psychiatric patient with undetected intellectual disability,” BMJ Case Rep., vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1–5, 2021, doi: 10.1136/bcr-2020-239862.
[21] A. C. Wright and J. C. Shaw, “The spectrum of end of life care: an argument for access to medical assistance in dying for vulnerable populations,” Med. Heal. Care Philos., vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 211–219, 2019, doi: 10.1007/s11019-018-9860-z.
[22] G. L. Mendz and D. W. Kissane, “Agency, Autonomy and Euthanasia,” J. Law, Med. Ethics, vol. 48, no. 3, pp. 555–564, 2020, doi: 10.1177/1073110520958881.
[23] A. Perreault, D. Benrimoh, and A. Fielding, “Euthanasia requests in a Canadian psychiatric outpatient clinic: A case series part 2 of the McGill University euthanasia in psychiatry case series,” Int. J. Law Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. July, p. 101464, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ijlp.2019.101464.
[24] M. Colleran and A. M. Doherty, “Examining assisted suicide and euthanasia through the lens of healthcare quality,” Irish J. Med. Sci. (1971 -), Jun. 2023, doi: 10.1007/s11845-023-03418-2.
[25] R. Calati et al., “Euthanasia and assisted suicide in psychiatric patients: A systematic review of the literature,” J. Psychiatr. Res., vol. 135, no. November 2020, pp. 153–173, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2020.12.006.
[26] S. J. Skidmore and S. E. Robinson Kurpius, “Euthanasia in an Aging America: An Ethical Challenge for Mental Health Counselors,” J. Ment. Heal. Couns., vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 125–138, 2021, doi: 10.17744/mehc.43.2.03.
[27] Haeranah et al., “Health and law: Euthanasia in Indonesian legal perspective,” Enfermería Clínica, vol. 30, pp. 492–495, Jun. 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.enfcli.2019.10.128.
[28] D. Oliver, “A perspective on euthanasia,” Br. J. Cancer, vol. 95, no. 8, pp. 953–954, Oct. 2006, doi: 10.1038/sj.bjc.6603365.
[29] P. G. T. Cabrera, A. A. Ramírez-Coronel, I. C. Mesa-Cano, and L. C. J. Vásquez, “Perspective on assisted suicide and euthanasia: systematic review,” ociedad Venez. Farmacol., vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 581–586, 2021, doi:
[30] A. Gutierrez-Castillo, J. Gutierrez-Castillo, F. Guadarrama-Conzuelo, A. Jimenez-Ruiz, and J. Luis Ruiz-Sandoval, “Euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide: a systematic review of medical students’ attitudes in the last 10 years,” J. Med. Ethics Hist. Med., Dec. 2020, doi: 10.18502/jmehm.v13i22.4864.
[31] B. McKinnon and M. Orellana-Barrios, “Ethics in physician-assisted dying and euthanasia,” Southwest Respir. Crit. Care Chronicles, vol. 7, no. 30, pp. 36–42, Jul. 2019, doi: 10.12746/swrccc.v7i30.561.
[32] M. Cohen and J. Hortensius, “A HUMAN RIGHTS APPROACH TO END OF LIFE ? RECENT DEVELOPMENTS AT THE EUROPEAN,” 2018. [Online]. Available:
[33] A. Syahroel, “Juridical Analysis of Euthanasia (Right to Death) Based on Article 344 of Indonesian Criminal Code and Law Number 39/1999 Concerning Human Rights,” in Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Business Law and Local Wisdom in Tourism (ICBLT 2022), no. 39, Paris: Atlantis Press SARL, 2023, pp. 353–361. doi: 10.2991/978-2-494069-93-0_42.